Visa Restrictions and Bilateral Travel
The Professional Geographer, Vol. 62, No. 2, pp. 1-11, 2010
26 Pages Posted: 15 Jun 2008 Last revised: 13 Jun 2010
Date Written: December 2, 2009
The vast majority of states impose visa restrictions on travellers from some foreign countries. Such restrictions are likely to deter foreign visitors from affected countries. They will therefore reduce the flow of tourists, businesspeople and other travellers and thereby damage a country’s tourism industry, reduce its trade as well as its scientific, cultural and other exchange with foreign countries. This study estimates the damaging effect exerted by visa restrictions on bilateral travel in a country dyad dataset covering the period 1995 to 2005. It finds that, depending on the exact model specification chosen, visa restrictions reduce such travel by on average between 52 and 63 percent, but with substantial regional variation. Given this large detrimental effect of visa restrictions on bilateral travel, the article discusses the determinants of why states impose such restrictions.
Keywords: visa, visitors, travellers, trade, tourism
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