'Business as Usual' in the Industrial Age: (Relatively) Lean, Green and Eco-Efficient?
University of Toronto - Department of Geography; PERC - Property and Environment Research Center
York University - Osgoode Hall Law School
July 7, 2008
This paper discusses the creation of wealth from polluting waste in market economies before the birth of the modern environmental movement. The first section surveys some early English-language writings on the topic, with particular emphasis on books and monographs that have recently been made accessible online. The remainder of the essay describes historical cases of resource recovery that might be somewhat surprising to modern readers, illustrating in the process that economic profitability and pollution reduction have typically been far more compatible than is now believed.
Keywords: Peter Lund Simmonds, win-win innovation, industrial ecology, industrial symbiosis
JEL Classification: B10, QOO, L20
Date posted: December 15, 2008