Racial Discrimination in English Professional Football: Evidence from an Empirical Analysis of Players' Career Progression

37 Pages Posted: 6 Aug 2008

See all articles by John Goddard

John Goddard

University of Wales System - Bangor University

John O. S. Wilson

University of St. Andrews

Date Written: August 4, 2008

Abstract

A novel test for racial discrimination in English professional football is presented, based on an assessment of the effect of race on footballers' labour market transition probabilities. Career progression is observed over five-year intervals within the period 1986-2001. Transition probabilities are estimated using a three-equation model with initial divisional status, retention and divisional transition as dependent variables. Retention depends on age, divisional status, first-team appearances, playing position and birthplace. Divisional transition depends on age, first-team appearances and playing position. Black players tend to be employed by teams of higher divisional status and have higher retention probabilities, suggesting a form of hiring discrimination affecting the process of becoming a professional.

Keywords: Professional football, racial discrimination, transition probabilities

JEL Classification: J24, J44, J62

Suggested Citation

Goddard, John and Wilson, John O. S., Racial Discrimination in English Professional Football: Evidence from an Empirical Analysis of Players' Career Progression (August 4, 2008). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1200702 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1200702

John Goddard

University of Wales System - Bangor University ( email )

Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales LL57 2DG
United Kingdom

John O. S. Wilson (Contact Author)

University of St. Andrews ( email )

North St
Saint Andrews, Fife KY16 9AJ
United Kingdom

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