Financial Crises and Bank Liquidity Creation (This is an OLD WP that has been split into 2 parts: (1) How does Capital affect Bank Performance during Financial Crises (JFE, July 2013); and (2) Bank Liquidity Creation, Monetary Policy, and Financial Crises (WP 2012))

53 Pages Posted: 18 Aug 2008 Last revised: 6 Jul 2013

See all articles by Allen N. Berger

Allen N. Berger

University of South Carolina - Darla Moore School of Business; Wharton Financial Institutions Center; European Banking Center

Christa H. S. Bouwman

Texas A&M University; Wharton Financial Institutions Center

Date Written: October 1, 2008

Abstract

Financial crises and bank liquidity creation are often connected. We examine this connection from two perspectives. First, we examine the aggregate liquidity creation of banks before, during, and after five major financial crises in the U.S. from 1984:Q1 to 2008:Q1. We uncover numerous interesting patterns, such as a significant build-up or drop-off of "abnormal" liquidity creation before each crisis, where "abnormal" is defined relative to a time trend and seasonal factors. Banking and market-related crises differ in that banking crises were preceded by abnormal positive liquidity creation, while market-related crises were generally preceded by abnormal negative liquidity creation. Bank liquidity creation has both decreased and increased during crises, likely both exacerbating and ameliorating the effects of crises. Off-balance sheet guarantees such as loan commitments moved more than on-balance sheet assets such as mortgages and business lending during banking crises.

Second, we examine the effect of pre-crisis bank capital ratios on the competitive positions and profitability of individual banks during and after each crisis. The evidence suggests that high capital served large banks well around banking crises - they improved their liquidity creation market share and profitability during these crises and were able to hold on to their improved performance afterwards. In addition, high-capital listed banks enjoyed significantly higher abnormal stock returns than low-capital listed banks during banking crises. These benefits did not hold or held to a lesser degree around market-related crises and in normal times. In contrast, high capital ratios appear to have helped small banks improve their liquidity creation market share during banking crises, market-related crises, and normal times alike, and the gains in market share were sustained afterwards. Their profitability improved during two crises and subsequent to virtually every crisis. Similar results were observed during normal times for small banks.

Keywords: Financial Crises, Liquidity Creation, and Banking

JEL Classification: G28, and G21

Suggested Citation

Berger, Allen N. and Bouwman, Christa H. S., Financial Crises and Bank Liquidity Creation (This is an OLD WP that has been split into 2 parts: (1) How does Capital affect Bank Performance during Financial Crises (JFE, July 2013); and (2) Bank Liquidity Creation, Monetary Policy, and Financial Crises (WP 2012)) (October 1, 2008). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1231562 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1231562

Allen N. Berger

University of South Carolina - Darla Moore School of Business ( email )

1705 College St
Francis M. Hipp Building
Columbia, SC 29208
United States
803-576-8440 (Phone)
803-777-6876 (Fax)

Wharton Financial Institutions Center

Philadelphia, PA 19104-6367
United States

European Banking Center

P.O. Box 90153
Tilburg, 5000 LE
Netherlands

Christa H. S. Bouwman (Contact Author)

Texas A&M University ( email )

360H Wehner
College Station, TX 77843-4218
United States
979-845-3514 (Phone)
979-845-3514 (Fax)

HOME PAGE: http://people.tamu.edu/~cbouwman/

Wharton Financial Institutions Center

2306 Steinberg Hall-Dietrich Hall
3620 Locust Walk
Philadelphia, PA 19104
United States

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