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'Nigger': A Critical Race Realist Analysis of the N-Word within Hate Crimes Law

The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology Vol. 98, No. 4, 2008

48 Pages Posted: 23 Aug 2008 Last revised: 1 Aug 2017

Gregory Scott Parks

Wake Forest University - School of Law

Shayne E. Jones

University of South Florida

Date Written: August 22, 2008

Abstract

Is it ever not a hate crime when a White person attacks a Black person and hurls the N-word repeatedly during the attack? Some contend that where a White person is immersed in Black culture, they may use the N-word and not harbor any racial animus. An analysis of White an Black use of the N-word within 1) hip hop lyrics, racialized comedy routines, and spoken-word performances suggest that Blacks use the word frequently, but even Whites immersed in Black culture do not. This, coupled with the fact that unconscious race bias is prevelant among Whites and predicts White usage of the N-word, suggest that White usage of the N-word while assaulting a Black person is indicative of racial animus - if only at the unconscious level.

Keywords: Implicit Attitudes, Nigger, Hate Crimes, Hip Hop, Black Culture, Empirical

Suggested Citation

Parks, Gregory Scott and Jones, Shayne E., 'Nigger': A Critical Race Realist Analysis of the N-Word within Hate Crimes Law (August 22, 2008). The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology Vol. 98, No. 4, 2008. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1248382 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1248382

Gregory Parks (Contact Author)

Wake Forest University - School of Law ( email )

P.O. Box 7206
Winston-Salem, NC 27109
United States
3367582170 (Phone)

Shayne Jones

University of South Florida

Tampa, FL 33620
United States

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