Self-Employment Across 15 European Countries:

20 Pages Posted: 10 Sep 2008

See all articles by N. Noorderhaven

N. Noorderhaven

Tilburg University and Institute for Research on Intercultural Cooperation

Roy Thurik

Montpellier Business School; Erasmus University Rotterdam (EUR) - Centre for Advanced Small Business Economics (CASBEC); Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM); EIM Netherlands - Business and Policy Research; Tinbergen Institute

S. Wennekers

EIM Netherlands - Business and Policy Research

Andre J. van Stel

Max Planck Society for the Advancement of the Sciences - Max Planck Institute for Economics

Date Written: 13 2003, 11

Abstract

This paper deals with differences in the rate of self-employment (business ownership) in 15 European countries for the period 1978-2000, focusing on the influence of dissatisfaction and using the framework of occupational choice. Using two different measures of dissatisfaction, in addition to the level of economic development, the unemployment rate and income differentials, we find that dissatisfaction at the level of societies is the most significant factor for explaining differences in self-employment levels. Dissatisfaction with life and with the way democracy works are both found to be positively related to self-employment. It is concluded that these are proxies for job dissatisfaction and at the same time represent other negative ‘displacements’ known to promote self-employment.

Keywords: comparative analysis of economies, cultural economics, entrepreneurship, macro-economic analyses of economic development

JEL Classification: M, M10, M13, L2

Suggested Citation

Noorderhaven, Niels and Thurik, Roy and Wennekers, Sander and van Stel, Andre J., Self-Employment Across 15 European Countries: (13 2003, 11). ERIM Report Series Reference No. ERS-2003-081-ORG. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1265427

Niels Noorderhaven

Tilburg University and Institute for Research on Intercultural Cooperation ( email )

Postbus 90153
Tilburg, DC 5000 LE
Netherlands
+31-13-4662420 (Phone)

Roy Thurik

Montpellier Business School

France

Erasmus University Rotterdam (EUR) - Centre for Advanced Small Business Economics (CASBEC) ( email )

3000 DR Rotterdam
Netherlands
+31 10 408 2232 (Phone)
+31 10 408 9146 (Fax)

HOME PAGE: http://www.thurik.com

Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM) ( email )

P.O. Box 1738
3000 DR Rotterdam
Netherlands

EIM Netherlands - Business and Policy Research

Postbus 7001
2701 AA Zoetermeer
Netherlands
+31 79 341 3634 (Phone)
+31 79 331 3742 (Fax)

Tinbergen Institute ( email )

Burg. Oudlaan 50
Rotterdam, 3062 PA
Netherlands

Sander Wennekers

EIM Netherlands - Business and Policy Research ( email )

Postbus 7001
2701 AA Zoetermeer
Netherlands
31 79 3413634 (Phone)

Andre J. Van Stel

Max Planck Society for the Advancement of the Sciences - Max Planck Institute for Economics ( email )

Kahlaische Strasse 10
D-07745 Jena, 07745
Germany

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