Cross-National Logo Evaluation Analysis: An Individual Level Approach

59 Pages Posted: 10 Sep 2008

See all articles by Ralf van der Lans

Ralf van der Lans

Hong Kong University of Science & Technology (HKUST) - Department of Marketing

Joseph A. Cote

Washington State University - Department of Marketing

Catherine Cole

University of Iowa - Henry B. Tippie College of Business

Siew Meng Leong

National University of Singapore (NUS) - NUS Business School

A. Smidts

Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM)

Pamela W. Henderson

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Christian Bluemelhuber

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Paul A. Bottomley

Cardiff University - Cardiff Business School

John R. Doyle

Cardiff University - Cardiff Business School

Alexander Fedorikhin

Indiana University - Kelley School of Business - Department of Marketing

M. Janakiraman

Indian Institute of Management (IIM), Lucknow

B. Ramaseshan

Curtin University - School of Marketing

Bernard Schmitt

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Date Written: February 2008 9,

Abstract

The universality of design perception and response is tested using data collected from ten countries: Argentina, Australia, China, Germany, Great Britain, India, the Netherlands, Russia, Singapore, and the United States. A Bayesian, finite-mixture, structural-equation model is developed that identifies latent logo clusters while accounting for heterogeneity in evaluations. The concomitant variable approach allows cluster probabilities to be country specific. Rather than a priori defined clusters, our procedure provides a posteriori cross-national logo clusters based on consumer response similarity. To compare the a posteriori cross-national logo clusters, our approach is integrated with Steenkamp and Baumgartner’s (1998) measurement invariance methodology. Our model reduces the ten countries to three cross-national clusters that respond differently to logo design dimensions: the West, Asia, and Russia. The dimensions underlying design are found to be similar across countries, suggesting that elaborateness, naturalness, and harmony are universal design dimensions. Responses (affect, shared meaning, subjective familiarity, and true and false recognition) to logo design dimensions (elaborateness, naturalness, and harmony) and elements (repetition, proportion, and parallelism) are also relatively consistent, although we find minor differences across clusters. Our results suggest that managers can implement a global logo strategy, but they also can optimize logos for specific countries if desired.

Keywords: design, logos, international marketing, standardization, adaptation, structural equation models, Gibbs sampling, concomitant variable, Bayesian, mixture models

JEL Classification: C44, M31, M, M37

Suggested Citation

van der Lans, Ralf and Cote, Joseph A. and Cole, Catherine and Leong, Siew Meng and Smidts, Ale and Henderson, Pamela W. and Bluemelhuber, Christian and Bottomley, Paul A. and Doyle, John and Fedorikhin, Alexander and Janakiraman, M. and Ramaseshan, B. and Schmitt, Bernard, Cross-National Logo Evaluation Analysis: An Individual Level Approach (February 2008 9,). ERIM Report Series Reference No. ERS-2008-055-MKT. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1265991

Ralf Van der Lans

Hong Kong University of Science & Technology (HKUST) - Department of Marketing ( email )

Department of Marketing
Clear Water Bay, Kowloon
Hong Kong

Joseph A. Cote

Washington State University - Department of Marketing ( email )

14204 NE Salmon Creek Avenue
Vancouver, WA 98686
United States
360-546-9753 (Phone)
360-546-9037 (Fax)

HOME PAGE: http://www.vancouver.wsu.edu/fac/cote_joe/home.htm

Catherine Cole

University of Iowa - Henry B. Tippie College of Business ( email )

Acquisitions
5020 Main Library
Iowa City, IA 52242-1000
United States

Siew Meng Leong

National University of Singapore (NUS) - NUS Business School ( email )

1 Business Link
Singapore, 117592
Singapore

Ale Smidts

Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM) ( email )

P.O. Box 1738
3000 DR Rotterdam
Netherlands

Pamela W. Henderson

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

Christian Bluemelhuber

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Paul A. Bottomley

Cardiff University - Cardiff Business School ( email )

Aberconway Building
Colum Drive
Cardiff, CF10 3EU
United Kingdom

John Doyle

Cardiff University - Cardiff Business School ( email )

Aberconway Building
Colum Drive
Cardiff, CF10 3EU
United Kingdom

HOME PAGE: http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/carbs/faculty/doylejr/index.html

Alexander Fedorikhin

Indiana University - Kelley School of Business - Department of Marketing ( email )

Kelley School of Business
Bloomington, IN 47405
United States

M. Janakiraman

Indian Institute of Management (IIM), Lucknow

Prabandh Nagar
off Sitapur Road
Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 226013
India

B. Ramaseshan

Curtin University - School of Marketing

Australia

Bernard Schmitt

affiliation not provided to SSRN

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