Reducing Vulnerabilities to Crime of the European Waste Management Industry: The Research Base and the Prospects for Policy
European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 23-36, 2007
Posted: 21 Nov 2008 Last revised: 5 Nov 2009
Date Written: 2007
This paper reports on aspects of a recent study, independently conducted and funded by the European Commission, which examines vulnerabilities in the waste management industry. In this paper, first the existing literature is briefly reviewed. Studies on environmental crime have variously described its manifestations (descriptive studies, exposes, etc); focused on the criminal groups and individuals involved (case studies, threat or perpetrator profiles); or explored possible risks in terms of vulnerabilities of the waste business itself. The paper introduces and applies a method of scanning for criminal vulnerabilities in industrial sectors. Vulnerabilities are found in relation to regulation, the international context, and the high costs of legal waste management. Finally, the conclusion is drawn that some current and quite contingent events - in relation to European regulation, international trade and intra-regional competitiveness - may be opening up the prospects for higher standards and for a reduction in illegal behaviour in waste management.
Keywords: vulnerability study, crime, waste management, industry, market economy
JEL Classification: K14, K42, K20
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation