After Inclusion

Posted: 27 Dec 2008

See all articles by Devon W. Carbado

Devon W. Carbado

University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law

Catherine Fisk

University of California, Berkeley - School of Law

Multiple version iconThere are 2 versions of this paper

Date Written: December, 23 2008


What forms of discrimination are likely to be salient in the coming decade? This review flags a cluster of problems that roughly fall under the rubric of inclusive exclusions or discrimination by inclusion. Much contemporary discrimination theory and empirical work is concerned not simply with mapping the forces that keep people out of the labor market but also with identifying the forces that push them into hierarchical structures within workplaces and labor markets. Underwriting this effort is the notion that, although determining what happens before and during the moment in which a prospective employee is excluded from an employment opportunity remains crucial to antidiscrimination theory and practice, significant employment discrimination problems can occur after a person is hired and becomes an employee. These problems transcend racial and sexual harassment. They include a range of subtle institutional practices and interpersonal dynamics that create systemic advantages for some employees and disadvantages for others. We predict that the next generation of race discrimination scholarship will engage these "after inclusion" workplace difficulties theoretically, empirically, and doctrinally.

Keywords: employment discrimination, racial performance, assimilation, unconcious discrimination

Suggested Citation

Carbado, Devon W. and Fisk, Catherine L., After Inclusion (December, 23 2008). Annual Review of Law & Social Science, Vol. 4, December 2008, Available at SSRN:

Devon W. Carbado

University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - School of Law ( email )

385 Charles E. Young Dr. East
Room 1242
Los Angeles, CA 90095-1476
United States
310-825-3365 (Phone)
310-825-6023 (Fax)

Catherine L. Fisk

University of California, Berkeley - School of Law ( email )

215 Boalt Hall
Berkeley, CA 94720-7200
United States
(510) 642-2098 (Phone)

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