Women Empowerment in India

Bulletin of Political Economy, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 155-183, 2012

32 Pages Posted: 24 Dec 2008 Last revised: 8 Jun 2017

See all articles by Purusottam Nayak

Purusottam Nayak

North-Eastern Hill University

Bidisha Mahanta

Doomdooma College

Date Written: December 24, 2008


The present paper is an attempt to analyze the status of women empowerment in India using various indicators based on data from secondary sources. The study reveals that women of India are relatively disempowered and they enjoy somewhat lower status than that of men in spite of many efforts undertaken by government. Gender gap exists regarding access to education and employment. Household decision making power and freedom of movement of women vary considerably with their age, education and employment status. It is found that acceptance of unequal gender norms by women are still prevailing in the society. More than half of the women believe wife beating to be justified for one reason or the other. Fewer women have final say on how to spend their earnings. Control over cash earnings increases with age, education and with place of residence. Women’s exposure to media is also less relative to men. Rural women are more prone to domestic violence than that of urban women. A large gender gap exists in political participation too. The study concludes by an observation that access to education and employment are only the enabling factors to empowerment, achievement towards the goal, however, depends largely on the attitude of the people towards gender equality.

Suggested Citation

Nayak, Purusottam and Mahanta, Bidisha, Women Empowerment in India (December 24, 2008). Bulletin of Political Economy, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 155-183, 2012, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1320071 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1320071

Purusottam Nayak (Contact Author)

North-Eastern Hill University ( email )

Department of Economics
Shillong, Meghalaya 793022
91-364-2723183 (Phone)

HOME PAGE: http://pnayak.webs.com/

Bidisha Mahanta

Doomdooma College


Here is the Coronavirus
related research on SSRN

Paper statistics

Abstract Views
PlumX Metrics