Female Labor Supply Differences by Sexual Orientation: A Semi-Parametric Decomposition Approach

44 Pages Posted: 2 Mar 2009

See all articles by Heather Antecol

Heather Antecol

Claremont McKenna College - Robert Day School of Economics and Finance; IZA Institute of Labor Economics

Michael D. Steinberger

Pomona College - Department of Economics

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Abstract

Using 2000 U.S. Census data we illustrate the importance of accounting for household specialization in lesbian couples when examining the sexual orientation gap in female labor supply. Specifically, we find the labor supply gap is substantially larger between married women and partnered lesbian women who specialize in market production (primary earners) than between married women and partnered lesbian women who specialize in household production (secondary earners). Using a semi-parametric decomposition approach, we further show that the role of children in explaining the mean labor supply gap by sexual orientation is greatly understated if the household division of labor between household and market production is not taken into account. Finally, we illustrate that controlling for children significantly reduces differences between married women and secondary lesbian earners both in terms of the decision to remain attached to the labor market (the extensive margin), as well as in terms of annual hours of work conditional on working (the intensive margin). Further, the effect of controlling for children is not uniform across the distribution of conditional annual hours; instead it primarily reduces the percentage of secondary lesbian earners working extremely high annual hours.

Keywords: household specialization, female labor supply, sexual orientation

JEL Classification: J22, J24

Suggested Citation

Antecol, Heather and Steinberger, Michael D., Female Labor Supply Differences by Sexual Orientation: A Semi-Parametric Decomposition Approach. IZA Discussion Paper No. 4029, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1351193 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1351193

Heather Antecol (Contact Author)

Claremont McKenna College - Robert Day School of Economics and Finance ( email )

500 E. Ninth Street
Claremont, CA 91711
United States

IZA Institute of Labor Economics

P.O. Box 7240
Bonn, D-53072
Germany

Michael D. Steinberger

Pomona College - Department of Economics ( email )

425 N. College Ave.
Claremont, CA 91711
United States

HOME PAGE: http://www.economics.pomona.edu/steinberger/

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