Racial Discrimination in English Professional Football: Evidence from an Empirical Analysis of Players' Career Progression
Posted: 12 Mar 2009
Date Written: March 2009
A novel test for racial discrimination in English professional football is presented, based on an assessment of the effect of race on footballers' labour market transition probabilities. Career progression is observed over five-year intervals within the period 1986-2001. Transition probabilities are estimated using a three-equation model with initial divisional status, retention and divisional transition as dependent variables. Retention depends on age, divisional status, first-team appearances, playing position and birthplace. Divisional transition depends on age, first-team appearances and playing position. Black players tend to be employed by teams of higher divisional status and have higher retention probabilities, suggesting a form of hiring discrimination affecting the process of becoming a professional.
Keywords: Professional football, Racial discrimination, Transition probabilities
JEL Classification: J24, J44, J62
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation