Stable Monte-Carlo Sensitivities of Bermudan Callable Products

20 Pages Posted: 17 Apr 2009 Last revised: 22 Apr 2009

See all articles by Christian P. Fries

Christian P. Fries

Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (LMU) - Faculty of Mathematics; DZ Bank AG

Date Written: April 13, 2009


In this paper we discuss the valuation and sensitivities of financial products with early exercise rights (e.g., Bermudan options) using a Monte-Carlo simulation. The usual way to value early exercise rights is the backward algorithm. As we will point out, the Monte-Carlo version of the backward algorithm is given by an unconditional expectation of a random variable whose paths are discontinuous functions of the initial data. This results in noisy sensitivities, when sensitivities are calculated from finite differences of valuations.

We present a simple localized smoothing of the Monte-Carlo backward algorithm which results in stable, variance reduced sensitivities. In contrast to other payoff smoothing methods, the smoothed backward algorithm will converge to the true Bermudan value in the Monte-Carlo limit. However, it looses the property of being a strict lower bound.

The method is easy to implement since it is a simple modification to the pricing algorithm and it is independent of the underlying model.

Keywords: Monte Carlo Simulation, Pricing, Greeks, Variance Reduction, Bermudan Product, Cancelable Product, Early Exercise, Backward Algorithm

JEL Classification: C15, G13

Suggested Citation

Fries, Christian P., Stable Monte-Carlo Sensitivities of Bermudan Callable Products (April 13, 2009). Available at SSRN: or

Christian P. Fries (Contact Author)

Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (LMU) - Faculty of Mathematics ( email )

Theresienstrasse 39

DZ Bank AG ( email )

60265 Frankfurt am Main

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