A European Patent Indicator for Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit-Sharing
93 Pages Posted: 30 Apr 2009 Last revised: 28 Mar 2013
Date Written: April 30, 2009
This report provides the first edition of a European patent indicator for access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing developed for the European Environment Agency as part of the Streamlining European Biodiversity Indicators (SEBI 2010) process (Report EEA/BSS/08/012). The patent indicator identifies biodiversity and traditional knowledge within the international patent system using the International Patent Classification and text mining. Statistics on patent trends are provided for European countries and related instruments using the World Patent Statistical Database (PATSTAT). Four definitions of biodiversity and traditional knowledge are provided and compared in the report: a) an OECD definition of biotechnology patents; b) a definition capturing the universe of biodiversity and traditional knowledge patent activity based on text mining; c) a definition that assumes that pharmaceutical and chemical compounds are of natural origin; d) a refined indicator based on text mining of the International Patent Classification.
The main contribution of the report is to provide the most detailed study to date of the presence of biodiversity and traditional knowledge in the patent system. The report contributes to European work to establish indicators to meet the 2010 target to halt the loss of biodiversity and to work on an international regime on access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing under the Convention on Biological Diversity. In connection with debates under the Convention on Biological Diversity the report considers issues including: disclosure of origin of biodiversity and traditional knowledge; certificate systems, and; the methodological challenges involved in linking patent data with wider economic indicators.
The World Patent Statistical Database (PATSTAT) developed by the European Patent Office is a new research tool. In the interest of methodological transparency and development the PATSTAT queries along with IPC definitions and data sets developed for the report are made available in an online data archive referenced in the report.
Revised with slight erratum and link to higher resolution version and images on 05/06/2009.
Keywords: patent statistics, PATSTAT, access to genetic resources and benefit sharing, SEBI 2010, European Environment Agency, patent statistics biotechnology, patents biodiversity, patents traditional knowledge, Convention on Biological Diversity, International Patent Classification
JEL Classification: O34, O38, Q28, K11, K33, L12, N50
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