'Black Ships' and Balance Sheets: The Japanese Market and U.S.-Japan Relations

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business, Vol. 3, p. 103, 1981

52 Pages Posted: 18 May 2009

See all articles by Kenneth W. Abbott

Kenneth W. Abbott

Arizona State University

Conrad D. Totman

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Date Written: 1981

Abstract

In this article, the authors address the widespread Western belief that the Japanese economy is unfairly closed to foreign trade and investment. The authors identify several levels of barriers to penetration of the Japanese market. They find that considerable progress has been made in reducing direct official restraints and official non-tariff barriers. Further progress in resolving the closed market issue, the authors predict, will be more difficult. Some of the remaining problems are rooted in Japanese society and culture; others in Western attitudes toward Japan. All reflect the historical pattern of Japan's relations with the West. The authors conclude with recommendations for Japanese and American policy aimed at resolving the closed market issue while maintaining amicable relations.

Keywords: International relations, economics, trade

Suggested Citation

Abbott, Kenneth Wayne and Totman, Conrad D., 'Black Ships' and Balance Sheets: The Japanese Market and U.S.-Japan Relations (1981). Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business, Vol. 3, p. 103, 1981. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1402946

Kenneth Wayne Abbott (Contact Author)

Arizona State University ( email )

Box 877906
Tempe, AZ 85287-7906
United States
480-965-5917 (Phone)

Conrad D. Totman

affiliation not provided to SSRN

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