Financial Hardship Before and after Social Security's Early Eligibility Age

42 Pages Posted: 23 May 2009

See all articles by Richard W. Johnson

Richard W. Johnson

Urban Institute - Income and Benefits Policy Center; National Academy of Social Insurance (NASI)

Gordon Mermin

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Date Written: January 2009

Abstract

Although poverty rates for Americans ages 65 and older have plunged over the past half century, many people continue to fall into poverty in their late fifties and early sixties. This study examines financial hardship rates in the years before qualifying for Social Security retirement benefits at age 62 and investigates how the availability of Social Security improves economic well-being at later ages. The analysis follows a sample of adults from the 1937-39 birth cohort for 14 years, tracking their employment, disability status, and income as they age from their early 50s until their late 60s. It measures the share of older adults who appear to have been forced into retirement by health or employment shocks and the apparent impact of involuntary retirement on low-income rates. The study also estimates models of the likelihood that older adults experience financial hardship before reaching Social Security's early eligibility age. The results show that the likelihood of experiencing financial hardship increases significantly as people approach Social Security's early eligibility age. The increase in hardship rates is concentrated among workers with limited education and health problems. For example, among those who did not complete high school, hardship rates increase from 23 percent at ages 52 to 54 to 31 percent at ages 60 to 61, a relative increase of 36 percent. Hardship rates decline after age 62, when most people qualify for Social Security retirement benefits. These findings highlight the fragility of the income support system for Americans in their fifties and early sixties.

Suggested Citation

Johnson, Richard Warren and Mermin, Gordon, Financial Hardship Before and after Social Security's Early Eligibility Age (January 2009). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1408728 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1408728

Richard Warren Johnson (Contact Author)

Urban Institute - Income and Benefits Policy Center ( email )

2100 M Street, NW
Washington, DC 20037
United States
202-261-5541 (Phone)
202-833-4388 (Fax)

National Academy of Social Insurance (NASI)

1776 Massachusetts Avenue, NW
Suite 615
Washington, DC 20036-1904
United States

Gordon Mermin

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

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