Determinants of Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions

50 Pages Posted: 1 Jul 2009 Last revised: 22 Apr 2011

Isil Erel

Ohio State University (OSU) - Department of Finance

Rose C. Liao

Rutgers University, Newark, School of Business-Newark, Department of Finance & Economics

Michael S. Weisbach

Ohio State University (OSU) - Department of Finance; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

Multiple version iconThere are 2 versions of this paper

Date Written: March 15, 2011

Abstract

Despite the fact that one-third of worldwide mergers involve firms from different countries, the vast majority of the academic literature on mergers studies domestic mergers. What little has been written about cross-border mergers has focused on public firms, usually from the United States. Yet, the vast majority of cross-border mergers involve private firms that are not from the United States. We provide an analysis of a sample of 56,978 cross-border mergers occurring between 1990 and 2007. We first characterize the patterns of who buys whom: Geography matters, with firms being much more likely to purchase firms in nearby countries than in countries far away. Purchasers are usually but not always from developed countries and they tend to purchase firms in countries with lower investor protection and accounting standards. A significant factor in determining acquisition patterns is currency movements; firms tend to purchase firms from countries relative to which the acquirer's currency has appreciated. In addition economy-wide factors reflected in the country's stock market returns lead to acquisitions as well. Both the currency and stock market effect could reflect either misvaluation or wealth explanations. Our evidence is more consistent with the wealth explanation than the misvaluation explanation.

Keywords: Mergers, Currency Movements, Market Movements, Valuation

JEL Classification: F3, G34

Suggested Citation

Erel, Isil and Liao, Rose C. and Weisbach, Michael S., Determinants of Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions (March 15, 2011). Journal of Finance, Forthcoming; Charles A. Dice Center Working Paper No. 2009-03-011; Fisher College of Business Working Paper No. 2009-03-11. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1427408

Isil Erel (Contact Author)

Ohio State University (OSU) - Department of Finance ( email )

2100 Neil Avenue
Columbus, OH 43210-1144
United States

Rose C. Liao

Rutgers University, Newark, School of Business-Newark, Department of Finance & Economics ( email )

1 Washington Park
Newark, NJ 07102
United States

Michael S. Weisbach

Ohio State University (OSU) - Department of Finance ( email )

2100 Neil Avenue
Columbus, OH 43210-1144
United States

National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

1050 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States

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