The Myth of Self-Regulation

31 Pages Posted: 9 Jul 2009

See all articles by Fred C. Zacharias

Fred C. Zacharias

University of San Diego School of Law

Date Written: July 8, 2009


The American legal profession is highly regulated. Lawyers are governed by state-enforced professional codes, supervised by courts, and constrained by civil liability rules, civil and criminal statutes, and administrative standards. Nevertheless, commentators and various actors in the legal system continue to conceptualize law as a “self-regulated profession.” The preamble to the recently revised ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct characterizes the Rules as self-regulation despite the fact that they are intended to be adopted and administered as enforceable law by state supreme courts. This Article argues that the persistent emphasis on lawyer self-regulation misleads courts, code drafters, lawyers, and laypersons alike, with serious ramifications for the development of the law governing lawyers and for everyday legal practice. The Article traces the history of lawyer regulation, explaining why the notion of law as a self-regulated industry developed, when it became archaic, and why it continues to be used. The Article then highlights adverse consequences that arise when various actors – including the co-regulators of the bar, lawyers themselves, and the public – cling to the image that lawyers self-regulate through the legal ethics codes. The Article ultimately proposes an amendment to the Model Rules that would eliminate all reference to self-regulation and replace it with a more accurate statement.

Keywords: legal ethics, professional responsibility

JEL Classification: K10

Suggested Citation

Zacharias, Fred C., The Myth of Self-Regulation (July 8, 2009). Minnesota Law Review, Vol. 93, 2009, San Diego Legal Studies Paper No. 09-018, Available at SSRN:

Fred C. Zacharias (Contact Author)

University of San Diego School of Law

5998 Alcala Park
San Diego, CA 92110-2492
United States

Do you have negative results from your research you’d like to share?

Paper statistics

Abstract Views
PlumX Metrics