The Unbiasdness Hypothesis in the Freight Forward Market: Evidence from Cointegration Tests
Posted: 12 Feb 2014
Date Written: 2004
The current paper investigates the unbiasedness hypothesis of Forward Freight Agreement (FFA) prices in the freight over-the-counter (OTC) forward market trades. Cointegration techniques are employed to examine the hypothesis. The results indicate that: FFA prices one and two months before maturity are unbiased predictors of the realised spot freight rates for all investigated shipping routes; three months FFA prices for panamax Pacific routes are unbiased predictors of spot prices, while FFA prices for panamax Atlantic routes are found to be biased predictors of spot prices. This diverse evidence suggests that the validity of the unbiasedness hypothesis depends on the specific characteristics of the market under investigation, the selected trading route and the time to maturity of the contract.
Keywords: forward markets, cointegration, unbiasedness, shipping.
JEL Classification: G13, G14, C32
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation