Accrual-Based and Real Earnings Management in Dynamic Settings

43 Pages Posted: 28 Jul 2009 Last revised: 27 Oct 2015

Date Written: June 17, 2015


This paper develops a simple model to examine the dynamic relationship between earnings management and accounting regulations. In this model, current accrual-based earnings management affects the tightness of future regulations and managers rationally choose the levels of both accrual-based and real earnings management. We compare this dynamic model with the static one where the tightness of regulations is not affected by past levels of accrual-based earnings management and is, thus, constant over time. Our analysis reveals that accounting regulations directly affect relative costs of accrual-based and real earnings management in both static and dynamic settings, which is consistent with prior empirical and analytical studies. More importantly, we find that the impact of the change in manager's time horizon may be different for static and dynamic models of regulations. We also find that the initial state of the economy affects how managers adjust the levels of earnings management over time.

Keywords: earnings management, accounting regulation, dynamic model

JEL Classification: D90, K22, M41

Suggested Citation

Murakami, Yutaro and Shiiba, Atsushi, Accrual-Based and Real Earnings Management in Dynamic Settings (June 17, 2015). Available at SSRN: or

Yutaro Murakami (Contact Author)

Keio University ( email )


Atsushi Shiiba

Osaka University ( email )

1-7 Machikaneyama
Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043

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