Gender Culture and Gender Gap in Employment

31 Pages Posted: 12 Aug 2009

See all articles by Pamela Campa

Pamela Campa

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Alessandra Casarico

Bocconi University - Department of Policy Analysis and Public Management; CESifo (Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute for Economic Research)

Paola Profeta

Bocconi University - Department of Policy Analysis and Public Management; CESifo (Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute)

Multiple version iconThere are 2 versions of this paper

Date Written: August 2009

Abstract

This paper analyzes to what extent gender culture affects gender gap in employment. Drawing on Italian data, we measure culture by building two indices: one based on individual attitudes, as done in the existing literature; one based on firms’ attitudes. Firms’ beliefs, which express their set of ideas, values and norms, though generally neglected, are as important as individuals’ attitudes to explain female labor market outcomes. Using an instrumental variable analysis, we show that our index of gender culture based on firms’ attitudes is significant in explaining gender gap in employment in Italian provinces. We show that the same holds when culture is measured with reference to individual attitudes.

Keywords: firm’s culture, Italian provinces, instrumental variable

JEL Classification: J16

Suggested Citation

Campa, Pamela and Casarico, Alessandra and Profeta, Paola, Gender Culture and Gender Gap in Employment (August 2009). CESifo Working Paper Series No. 2738. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1447219

Pamela Campa

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

Alessandra Casarico

Bocconi University - Department of Policy Analysis and Public Management ( email )

Via Roentgen 1
Milan, 20136
Italy

CESifo (Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute for Economic Research)

Poschinger Str. 5
Munich, DE-81679
Germany

Paola Profeta (Contact Author)

Bocconi University - Department of Policy Analysis and Public Management ( email )

Via Roentgen 1
Milan, 20136
Italy

CESifo (Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute)

Poschinger Str. 5
Munich, DE-81679
Germany

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