The Effect of the Lobbying Environment on Policy Outcomes

21 Pages Posted: 16 Sep 2009 Last revised: 5 Sep 2012

Date Written: April 10, 2005


Most studies of lobbying use a micro perspective, focusing on the lobbyist, a single policy area, or interest groups collectively. The present study employs a macro approach, treating 77 policy proposals as the units of analysis. The breakdown of the lobbying environment into quantities of lobbyists for and against the proposal is the key explanatory variable predicting policy outcome and lobbyist success. The results show that while the amount of pressure in favor of a proposal has little effect, the amount of opposition pressure has a significant effect on the outcome. The role of conflict and policy venue in determining policy outcomes are also considered.

Keywords: interest groups, organized interests, lobbying, policy outcomes, Congress, policymaking

Suggested Citation

McKay, Amy Melissa, The Effect of the Lobbying Environment on Policy Outcomes (April 10, 2005). Available at SSRN: or

Amy Melissa McKay (Contact Author)

University of Exeter ( email )

Northcote House
The Queen's Drive
Exeter, Devon EX4 4QJ
United Kingdom

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