Globalization and the Empowerment of Women: An Analysis of Spatial Dependence Via Trade and Foreign Direct Investment
44 Pages Posted: 19 Oct 2009 Last revised: 29 Sep 2011
Date Written: November 5, 2010
This article tests the hypothesis that higher women’s economic and social rights in foreign countries with which a country is connected via trade and FDI spill-over into higher rights among the laggards — a phenomenon known as spatial dependence. Analyzing women’s rights over the period 1981 to 2007 in a global sample and samples of countries at different stages of economic development, we find consistent evidence for spill-over effects via trade links, with the exception of a sample of low-income countries. We also find some evidence for similar effects via FDI, but only for economic rights and only in middle-income countries.
Keywords: women’s rights, spatial dependence, diffusion, globalization, trade, FDI
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