Does the Business Start-Up Process Differ by Gender? A Longitudinal Study of Nascent Entrepreneurs

Posted: 4 Nov 2009

See all articles by Gry Agnete Alsos

Gry Agnete Alsos

University of Nordland - Nord University Business School

Elisabet Ljunggren

University of Nordland

Date Written: 1998

Abstract

The disparity between the number of men and women who become self-employed has been investigated through previous research.This study, however, examines the start-up processes of Norwegian male and female nascent entrepreneurs to understand better those characteristics that influence the success of startup businesses. A literature review addresses the gender effects of startup and entrepreneurial success, looking at factors within the individual, environment, organization, and process.Research questions are created based on previous research regarding startup processes.Data for this longitudinal study were collected through phone interviews at three time periods, examining individual participation in activities related to business planning, financing the startup, and relations with the external environment. Following an initial random selection of participants, only those participants identified as nascent entrepreneurs (n=149) were questioned at the proceeding two times in order to study the firm's development.Although the overall findings indicate many similarities between male and female nascent entrepreneurs, a few significant dissimilarities are indicated. When compared to male nascent entrepreneurs, females write fewer business plans and present them much later in the process; females require external capital earlier in the startup process; and females tend to hire fewer employees.The limitations of this study are discussed, as are policy-based implications and areas for future research. (AKP)

Keywords: Experimental/primary research, Firm performance, Firm survival, Female owned businesses, Startups, Nascent entrepreneurs, Gender, Self-employment, Business plans, Public policies, Females

Suggested Citation

Alsos, Gry Agnete and Ljunggren, Elisabet, Does the Business Start-Up Process Differ by Gender? A Longitudinal Study of Nascent Entrepreneurs (1998). University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Academy for Entrepreneurial Leadership Historical Research Reference in Entrepreneurship, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1497829

Gry Agnete Alsos (Contact Author)

University of Nordland - Nord University Business School ( email )

Bodø, 8049
Norway

Elisabet Ljunggren

University of Nordland

Post Office Box 1490
Bodø, Nordland 8049
Norway

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