Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: 2004 Report on Women and Entrepreneurship

Posted: 24 Nov 2009

See all articles by Nan S. Langowitz

Nan S. Langowitz

Babson College - Management Division

Maria Minniti

Syracuse University - Whitman School of Management

Pia Arenius

Turku School of Economics

Date Written: 2005


The role women play in entrepreneurial activity in the world economy is examined, as well as the factors that influence women’s participation in this activity.The analysis involves four types of data collection.The first comes from sampling randomly selected adults in the 34 countries examined.Second, interviews are conducted with 50 different experts in each country.These same experts are then asked to complete a standardized questionnaire.Data from international sources such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the United Nations are also collected.These data sets are combined and analyzed to produce the measures of entrepreneurial activity discussed. Results indicate that, in every country examined,men are more involved in entrepreneurship than women.The greatest gap between the genders occurs in middle-income countries.The driving force behind women’s decisions to pursue entrepreneurial activity is the lack of other job opportunities. This is especially true in low-income nations.However, no matter the income level of the country, women who have confidence and are able to perceive business opportunities are more likely to start a new business.These new businesses tend to target existing markets, use known technology, and utilize less start-up capital, which indicates that women are more conservative in their entrepreneurial activity. (SRD)

Keywords: Role models, Entrepreneurial activity, Work experience, Innovation process, Early stage financing, Public policies, Motivation, Opportunity recognition, Risk orientation, Financing, Cultural differences, Startup rates, Age, Social indicators

Suggested Citation

Langowitz, Nan S. and Minniti, Maria and Arenius, Pia, Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: 2004 Report on Women and Entrepreneurship (2005). University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Academy for Entrepreneurial Leadership Historical Research Reference in Entrepreneurship, Available at SSRN:

Nan S. Langowitz (Contact Author)

Babson College - Management Division ( email )

Babson Park, MA 02157
United States
(781) 239-4496 (Phone)


Maria Minniti

Syracuse University - Whitman School of Management ( email )

721 University Avenue
Syracuse, NY 13244-2130
United States

Pia Arenius

Turku School of Economics ( email )

Rehtorinpellonkatu 3
TURKU, FI-20500

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