What Happens in the Field Stays in the Field: Exploring Whether Professionals Play Minimax in Laboratory Experiments

24 Pages Posted: 28 Dec 2009 Last revised: 5 Sep 2010

See all articles by Steven D. Levitt

Steven D. Levitt

University of Chicago; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER); American Bar Foundation

John A. List

University of Chicago - Department of Economics; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER); IZA Institute of Labor Economics

David Reiley

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Department of Economics

Date Written: December 2009

Abstract

The minimax argument represents game theory in its most elegant form: simple but with stark predictions. Although some of these predictions have been met with reasonable success in the field, experimental data have generally not provided results close to the theoretical predictions. In a striking study, Palacios-Huerta and Volij (2007) present evidence that potentially resolves this puzzle: both amateur and professional soccer players play nearly exact minimax strategies in laboratory experiments. In this paper, we establish important bounds on these results by examining the behavior of four distinct subject pools: college students, bridge professionals, world-class poker players, who have vast experience with high-stakes randomization in card games, and American professional soccer players. In contrast to Palacios-Huerta and Volij's results, we find little evidence that real-world experience transfers to the lab in these games--indeed, similar to previous experimental results, all four subject pools provide choices that are generally not close to minimax predictions. We use two additional pieces of evidence to explore why professionals do not perform well in the lab: (1) complementary experimental treatments that pit professionals against preprogrammed computers, and (2) post-experiment questionnaires. The most likely explanation is that these professionals are unable to transfer their skills at randomization from the familiar context of the field to the unfamiliar context of the lab.

Suggested Citation

Levitt, Steven D. and List, John A. and Reiley, David, What Happens in the Field Stays in the Field: Exploring Whether Professionals Play Minimax in Laboratory Experiments (December 2009). NBER Working Paper No. w15609. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1528032

Steven D. Levitt (Contact Author)

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John A. List

University of Chicago - Department of Economics ( email )

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United States

National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

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IZA Institute of Labor Economics

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Germany

David Reiley

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Department of Economics

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Cambridge, MA 02142
United States

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