Access to Water, Women's Work and Child Outcomes

39 Pages Posted: 20 Apr 2016

See all articles by Gayatri B. Koolwal

Gayatri B. Koolwal

World Bank

Dominique P. van de Walle

World Bank - Development Research Group (DECRG)

Date Written: May 1, 2010


Poor rural women in the developing world spend considerable time collecting water. How then do they respond to improved access to water infrastructure? Does it increase their participation in income earning market-based activities? Does it improve the health and education outcomes of their children? To help address these questions, a new approach for dealing with the endogeneity of infrastructure placement in cross-sectional surveys is proposed and implemented using data for nine developing countries. The paper does not find that access to water comes with greater off-farm work for women, although in countries where substantial gender gaps in schooling exist, both boys' and girls' enrollments improve with better access to water. There are also some signs of impacts on child health as measured by anthropometric z-scores.

Keywords: Gender, Water Supply and Sanitation, Rural Labor Markets, Rural Water Supply and Sanitation, Access & Equity in Basic Education, Early Child and Children's Health

Suggested Citation

Koolwal, Gayatri B. and van de Walle, Dominique P., Access to Water, Women's Work and Child Outcomes (May 1, 2010). World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 5302, Available at SSRN:

Gayatri B. Koolwal (Contact Author)

World Bank ( email )

United States

Dominique P. Van de Walle

World Bank - Development Research Group (DECRG) ( email )

1818 H. Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20433
United States
202-473-7935 (Phone)
202-522-1154 (Fax)


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