Trade Creation and Diversion Revisited: Accounting for Model Uncertainty and Natural Trading Partner Effects
32 Pages Posted: 17 May 2010
Date Written: March 17, 2008
Trade theories covering Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs) are as diverse as the literature in search of their empirical support. To account for the model uncertainty that surrounds the validity of the competing PTA theories, we introduce Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) to the PTA literature. BMA minimizes the sum of Type I and Type II error, the mean squared error, and generates predictive distributions with optimal predictive performance. Once model uncertainty is addressed as part of the empirical strategy, we report clear evidence of Trade Creation, Trade Diversion, and Open Bloc effects. After controlling for natural trading partner effects, Trade Creation is weaker – except for the EU. To calculate the actual effects of PTAs on trade flows we show that the analysis must be comprehensive: it must control for Trade Creation and Diversion as well as all possible PTAs. Several prominent control variables are also shown to be robustly related to Trade Creation; they relate to factor endowments and economic policy.
Keywords: Trade Creation and Trade Diversion, Preferential Trade Agreements, Bayesian Model Averaging, Country-Pair Fixed Effects
JEL Classification: F10, F15, C11
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation