33 Pages Posted: 27 Jun 2010
Date Written: December 10, 2009
To be a first class member of a country, must one have citizenship, the same ethnic or racial background, or the same religion, as most citizens? How does high status relate to beliefs about inclusion? We analyze the 2003 ISSP survey on national identity, focusing on ten wealthy, democratic countries. We find a series of mismatches: a strong sense of being included is often coupled with a desire to exclude others. Countries with extreme public views are not always the countries with political controversy over inclusion. Views of citizens or members of the mainstream religion or race often differ from views of outsiders. Countries often cluster in ways that violate standard assumptions about geographic, cultural, or political affinities. Enjoying high status does not guarantee feeling included or seeking to include others. Given these mismatches, it is no surprise that politics and policies around inclusion are contentious, unstable, and fascinating.
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation
Hochschild, Jennifer L. and Lang, Charles, Including Oneself and Including Others: Who Belongs in My Country? (December 10, 2009). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1631382 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1631382