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Including Oneself and Including Others: Who Belongs in My Country?

Jennifer L. Hochschild

Harvard University

Charles Lang

affiliation not provided to SSRN

December 10, 2009

To be a first class member of a country, must one have citizenship, the same ethnic or racial background, or the same religion, as most citizens? How does high status relate to beliefs about inclusion? We analyze the 2003 ISSP survey on national identity, focusing on ten wealthy, democratic countries. We find a series of mismatches: a strong sense of being included is often coupled with a desire to exclude others. Countries with extreme public views are not always the countries with political controversy over inclusion. Views of citizens or members of the mainstream religion or race often differ from views of outsiders. Countries often cluster in ways that violate standard assumptions about geographic, cultural, or political affinities. Enjoying high status does not guarantee feeling included or seeking to include others. Given these mismatches, it is no surprise that politics and policies around inclusion are contentious, unstable, and fascinating.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 33

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Date posted: June 27, 2010  

Suggested Citation

Hochschild, Jennifer L. and Lang, Charles, Including Oneself and Including Others: Who Belongs in My Country? (December 10, 2009). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1631382 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1631382

Contact Information

Jennifer L. Hochschild (Contact Author)
Harvard University ( email )
1737 Cambridge Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States
617-496-0181 (Phone)
617-495-0438 (Fax)
Charles Lang
affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )
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