The Long and Short of Leveraged ETFs: The Financial Crisis and Performance Attribution
50 Pages Posted: 22 Jul 2010 Last revised: 6 Jun 2012
Date Written: June 5, 2012
Leveraged ETFs have received much press coverage of late due to issues with their performance. Managers and the media have focused investors' attention on the impact of compounding, when the funds are held for more than one day. In this paper, I lay out a framework for assessing the performance of leveraged ETFs. In particular, I propose a simple way to disentangle the effect of compounding and that of i) the management of the fund and ii) the trading premiums/discounts, all of which affect investors' bottom line. The former (i) is influenced by the effectiveness and the costs of the fund's (synthetic) replication strategy and the use of leverage. The latter (ii) reflects liquidity and the efficiency of the market. I find that tracking errors were not caused by the effects of compounding alone. Depending on the fund, the impact of management factors can outweigh the impact of compounding, and substantial premiums/discounts caused by reduced liquidity during the financial crisis further distorted performance.
Keywords: Leveraged ETF, inverse ETF, Exchange Traded Funds, Financial Crisis, Portfolio Performance
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation
Do you have a job opening that you would like to promote on SSRN?
Path-Dependence of Leveraged ETF Returns
Long Term Performance of Leveraged ETFs
A Dynamic Model for Hard-to-Borrow Stocks
By Mike Lipkin and Marco Avellaneda
Consistent Pricing of Options on Leveraged ETFs
By Andrew Ahn, Martin B. Haugh, ...
Advanced Analytics for the SABR Model
By Alexandre Antonov and Michael Spector
Implied Volatility of Leveraged ETF Options
By Tim Leung and Ronnie Sircar
How Passive are International ETFs? A Study of Their Intraday Behaviour
Structural Slippage of Leveraged ETFs
By Marco Avellaneda and Doris Dobi
Leveraged, Inverse, and Futures-Based ETFs
By Tim Dulaney, Tim Husson, ...