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Sustainable Development Is Security: The Role of Transboundary River Agreements as a Confidence Building Measure (CBM) in South Asia

39 Pages Posted: 26 Jul 2010 Last revised: 5 May 2011

James Kraska

Stockton Center for the Study of International Law, U.S. Naval War College; University of Virginia School of Law, Center for Oceans Law & Policy; University of Virginia School of Law, Center for National Security Law; University of California Berkeley School of Law; Foreign Policy Research Institute (FPRI); Council on Foreign Relations (CFR)

Date Written: 2009

Abstract

Over the past decade, scholars have closely examined the linkage between environmental change, security, and conflict. Severe deforestation, soil erosion, soil salinisation and water-logging, toxic contamination, drought and flooding, and air and water pollution are some of the environmental calamities that can increase international tension and even lead to conflict. What is perhaps more interesting, however, is that reversing the equation is also true. Environmental conservation and cooperative governance between neighbouring states can contribute to regional stability and conflict avoidance. This article suggests the international trans-boundary river agreement between India and Pakistan to manage the Indus River reduces tension and prevents war between the nuclear-armed rivals. During the Kargil crisis in 2001, for example, the trans-boundary river management regime was the most functional bilateral relationship between the two South Asian powers.

Keywords: Environmental security, sustainable, transboundary river, India, Pakistan, river, environment, environmental change, Indus

Suggested Citation

Kraska, James, Sustainable Development Is Security: The Role of Transboundary River Agreements as a Confidence Building Measure (CBM) in South Asia (2009). Yale Journal of International Law, Vol. 28, p. 317, 2009. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1648630

James Kraska (Contact Author)

Stockton Center for the Study of International Law, U.S. Naval War College ( email )

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Newport, RI 02841
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(401) 841-1536 (Phone)

HOME PAGE: http://https://www.usnwc.edu/Academics/Faculty/James-C--Kraska.aspx

University of Virginia School of Law, Center for Oceans Law & Policy ( email )

580 Massie Road
Charlottesville, VA 22903
United States

University of Virginia School of Law, Center for National Security Law ( email )

580 Massie Road
Charlottesville, VA 22903
United States

University of California Berkeley School of Law ( email )

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Berkeley, CA 94720
United States

HOME PAGE: http://https://www.law.berkeley.edu

Foreign Policy Research Institute (FPRI)

1528 Walnut Street
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Philadelphia, PA 19102
United States

Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) ( email )

The Harold Pratt House
58 East 68th Street
New York, NY 10021
United States

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