Trade and Culture

THE MAX PLANCK ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW, RĂ¼diger Wolfrum, ed., Oxford University Press, 2010

8 Pages Posted: 25 Aug 2010  

Christoph B. Graber

University of Zurich, Faculty of Law; Berkman Klein Center for Internet and Society, Harvard University

Date Written: August 25, 2010

Abstract

Issues between international trade and culture have existed since the end of World War I, when European countries introduced screen quotas to limit the effects of the ever-rising surge of films from the US. When states protect their culture-related industries they usually do so claiming the need to shield their culture from being subsumed by Hollywood. However, such protectionist measures are contrary to the general trend to liberalise trade. Furthermore, countries such as the US argue that they are merely economic protectionist mechanisms, disguised under the cultural discourse. This chapter discusses the history of the conflict between trade and the protection of culture, the trade of culture under the WTO (particularly under GATT and GATS), the impact of the UNESCO Convention on Cultural Diversity on the discussion, and how these agreements could better serve to address cultural issues or values. The chapter reflects on effects of digital technology and the internet, which have fundamentally altered the way cultural content is created, disseminated, accessed and enjoyed.

Keywords: International Trade, Culture, Cultural Diversity, Film Industry, Screen Quotas, Audiovisual Media, WTO, GATT, GATS, UNESCO Convention on Cultural Diversity

JEL Classification: K29, K33

Suggested Citation

Graber, Christoph B., Trade and Culture (August 25, 2010). THE MAX PLANCK ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW, RĂ¼diger Wolfrum, ed., Oxford University Press, 2010. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1656980

Christoph B. Graber (Contact Author)

University of Zurich, Faculty of Law ( email )

Treichlerstrasse 10
Zurich, 8032
Switzerland

HOME PAGE: http://www.rwi.uzh.ch/lehreforschung/alphabetisch/graber_en.html

Berkman Klein Center for Internet and Society, Harvard University ( email )

Harvard Law School
23 Everett, 2nd Floor
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States

HOME PAGE: http://https://cyber.harvard.edu/people/cgraber

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