Borobudur Was Built Algorithmically

9 Pages Posted: 22 Jan 2020

See all articles by Hokky Situngkir

Hokky Situngkir

Bandung Fe Institute; Center for Complexity in Surya University

Date Written: September 1, 2010


The self-similarity of Indonesian Borobudur Temple is observed through the dimensionality of stupa that is hypothetically closely related to whole architectural body. Fractal dimension is calculated by using the cube counting method and found that the dimension is 2.325, which is laid between the two-dimensional plane and three dimensional space. The applied fractal geometry and self-similarity of the building is emerged as the building process implement the metric rules, since there is no universal metric standard known in ancient traditional Javanese culture thus the architecture is not based on final master plan. The paper also proposes how the hypothetical algorithmic architecture might be applied computationally in order to see some experimental generations of similar building. The paper ends with some conjectures for further challenge and insights related to fractal geometry in Javanese traditional cultural heritages.

Keywords: Indonesia, Borobudur, fractal geometry, self-similarity, cube-counting method

Suggested Citation

Situngkir, Hokky, Borobudur Was Built Algorithmically (September 1, 2010). Available at SSRN: or

Hokky Situngkir (Contact Author)

Bandung Fe Institute ( email )

Sarimadu Permai 175
Bandung, Jawa Barat 40164
+622282025586 (Phone)


Center for Complexity in Surya University

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