Testing the Master Tools
University of Pennsylvania Law Review PENNumbra, Vol. 158, p. 305, 2010
13 Pages Posted: 18 Sep 2010 Last revised: 16 Jun 2011
This piece is a reply to two responses to The River Runs Dry: When Title VI Trumps State Anti-Affirmative Action Laws 157 U. PA. L. REV. 1075 (2009): Guy-Uriel E. Charles, Response, Do We Care Enough About Racial Inequality? Reflections on The River Runs Dry, 158 U. Pa. L. Rev. PENNumbra 119 (2009), and Girardeau A. Spann, Response, Doctrinal Dilemma, 158 U. PA. L. REV. PENNUMBRA 129 (2009).
Keywords: antidiscrimination, equal protection, disparate impact, Title VI, standardized tests, test deficiency, Ricci v. DeStefano, civil rights, anti-affirmative action laws, strong-basis-in-evidence standard
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