Comparing Business and Household Sector Innovation in Consumer Products: Findings from a Representative Study in the UK
Eric A. von Hippel
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Sloan School of Management
Jeroen P.J. de Jong
Utrecht University - Utrecht University School of Economics
affiliation not provided to SSRN
September 27, 2010
In a first survey of its type, we measure development and modification of consumer products by product users in a representative sample of 1,173 UK consumers aged 18 and over. We estimate this previously unmeasured type of innovation to be quite large: 6.1% of UK consumers – nearly 2.9 million individuals - have engaged in consumer product innovation during the prior three years. In aggregate, consumers’ annual product development expenditures are more than 1.4 times larger than the annual consumer product R&D expenditures of all firms in the UK combined.
Consumers engage in many small projects which seem complementary to the innovation efforts of incumbent producers. Consumer innovators very seldom protect their innovations via intellectual property, and 17% diffuse to others. These results imply that official statistics partly miss relevant innovation activity, and that existing companies should reconfigure their product development systems to find and build upon prototypes developed by consumers.
Number of Pages in PDF File: 29
Keywords: Household Innovation, Consumer Innovation, User Innovation
Date posted: September 28, 2010 ; Last revised: June 10, 2012