38 Pages Posted: 10 Oct 2010 Last revised: 23 Mar 2014
Date Written: April 18, 2012
Over the last fifteen years, six United States legal frameworks, including: 1) the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, of 1996, 2) the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, 3) the Internal Revenue Code, 4) Family Responsibilities Discrimination, 5) the Deadbeat Parents Punishment Act of 1998, and 6) the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005, have negatively impacted single mothers' ability to save for retirement and raise healthy children. The recession, ending in 2009, caused the loss of 7.3 million jobs, 4.1% of economic output, and 21% of Americans' net worth. The cumulative harm of the economic downturns and six different areas of US state and federal law has a markedly negative impact on single mother families throughout their prime earning years and, consequently, in retirement. Future income is directly linked to educational opportunities. The financial limitations on single mother families restrict their ability to invest in their children's education, causing an unending circle of limited earnings and education.
Keywords: Employment Practice, General Law, Human Rights Law, Law and Society, Legislation, Public Law and Legal Theory, Social Welfare, State and Local Government Law, Taxation, Women, Economics, Tax, Banktuptcy, children, single mothers, poverty, retirement
JEL Classification: H1, K2, K3
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation
Gershuny, Pamela, The Combined Impact of PRWORA, FMLA, IRC, FRD, DPPA, and BAPCPA on Single Mothers and Their Children (April 18, 2012). 18 JOWL 3, 2012 ; William & Mary Journal of Women and the Law, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 475-520, 2012. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1688807