Hope, Pride, and Processing During Optimal and Nonoptimal Times of Day
EMOTION, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2011
9 Pages Posted: 23 Oct 2010 Last revised: 21 Mar 2011
Date Written: 2009
We examine the conditions under which the distinct positive emotions of hope versus pride facilitate more or less fluid cognitive processing. Using individuals’ naturally occurring time of day preferences (i.e., morning vs. evening hours), we show that specific positive emotions can differentially influence processing resources. We argue that specific positive emotions are more likely to influence processing and behavior during nonoptimal times of day, when association-based processing is more likely. We show in three experiments that hope, pride, and a neutral state differentially influence fluid processing on cognitive tasks. Incidental hope facilitates fluid processing during nonoptimal times of day (compared to pride and neutral), improving performance on tasks requiring fluid intelligence (experiment 1) and increasing valuation estimates on tasks requiring that preferences be constructed on the spot (experiments 2 and 3). We also provide evidence that these differences in preference and valuation occur through a process of increased imagination (experiment 3). We contribute to emotion theory by showing that different positive emotions have different implications for processing during nonoptimal times of day.
Keywords: emotion, cognitive processing, circadian rhythm, positive mood, hope, pride
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