Hope, Pride, and Processing During Optimal and Nonoptimal Times of Day

EMOTION, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2011

9 Pages Posted: 23 Oct 2010 Last revised: 21 Mar 2011

Lisa A. Cavanaugh

University of Southern California - Marshall School of Business

Keisha Monique Cutright

Duke University

Mary Frances Luce

Duke University - Fuqua School of Business

James R. Bettman

Duke University - Fuqua School of Business

Date Written: 2009

Abstract

We examine the conditions under which the distinct positive emotions of hope versus pride facilitate more or less fluid cognitive processing. Using individuals’ naturally occurring time of day preferences (i.e., morning vs. evening hours), we show that specific positive emotions can differentially influence processing resources. We argue that specific positive emotions are more likely to influence processing and behavior during nonoptimal times of day, when association-based processing is more likely. We show in three experiments that hope, pride, and a neutral state differentially influence fluid processing on cognitive tasks. Incidental hope facilitates fluid processing during nonoptimal times of day (compared to pride and neutral), improving performance on tasks requiring fluid intelligence (experiment 1) and increasing valuation estimates on tasks requiring that preferences be constructed on the spot (experiments 2 and 3). We also provide evidence that these differences in preference and valuation occur through a process of increased imagination (experiment 3). We contribute to emotion theory by showing that different positive emotions have different implications for processing during nonoptimal times of day.

Keywords: emotion, cognitive processing, circadian rhythm, positive mood, hope, pride

Suggested Citation

Cavanaugh, Lisa A. and Cutright, Keisha Monique and Luce, Mary Frances and Bettman, James R., Hope, Pride, and Processing During Optimal and Nonoptimal Times of Day (2009). EMOTION, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2011. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1695651

Lisa A. Cavanaugh (Contact Author)

University of Southern California - Marshall School of Business ( email )

701 Exposition Blvd
Los Angeles, CA 90089
United States

Keisha Monique Cutright

Duke University ( email )

100 Fuqua Drive
Durham, NC 27708-0204
United States

Mary Frances Luce

Duke University - Fuqua School of Business ( email )

Box 90120
Durham, NC 27708-0120
United States

James R. Bettman

Duke University - Fuqua School of Business ( email )

Box 90120
Durham, NC 27708-0120
United States

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