Private Tutoring in Vietnam: An Investigation of Its Causes and Impacts with Policy Implications
PRIVATE TUTORING IN VIETNAM: AN INVESTIGATION OF ITS CAUSES AND IMPACTS WITH POLICY IMPLICATIONS, VDM Verlag, Dr. Mueller Publishing House, 2008
143 Pages Posted: 13 Nov 2010 Last revised: 27 Oct 2013
Date Written: November 11, 2008
Private tutoring is a widespread phenomenon in many developing countries, including Vietnam. Using data mainly from the Vietnam Living Standards Surveys 1997-1998 and 1992-1993, from Vietnam’s Ministry of Education and Training, and from local journals and newspapers for analysis, this book reviews the private tutoring situation in Vietnam. This book finds evidence that private tutoring in Vietnam is a necessity in the household budget for lower secondary students, and the trend to attend private tutoring is stronger at higher education levels. There is no evidence of gender discrimination in expenditure on private tutoring. Ethnic minority students and students living in rural areas spend less on private tutoring at the primary level but not at the lower secondary level. However, spending on private tutoring would fall significantly if the qualifications of primary school teachers are increased. Private tutoring is found to have significant impact on a student’s academic performance, but the influence is larger for lower secondary students. This book contributes to the available estimation techniques by extending the simultaneous Tobit model of Amemiya (1974) to a joint Tobit-ordered probit econometric model to address the possible endogeneity of household spending on private tutoring.
Keywords: Private Tutoring, Vietnam, Vietnam Living Standards Surveys, Joint Tobit-Ordered Probit Model
JEL Classification: I2, O1, C3
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation