Private Tutoring in Vietnam: An Investigation of Its Causes and Impacts with Policy Implications

PRIVATE TUTORING IN VIETNAM: AN INVESTIGATION OF ITS CAUSES AND IMPACTS WITH POLICY IMPLICATIONS, VDM Verlag, Dr. Mueller Publishing House, 2008

143 Pages Posted: 13 Nov 2010 Last revised: 27 Oct 2013

See all articles by Hai-Anh Dang

Hai-Anh Dang

World Bank - Development Data Group (DECDG); IZA Institute of Labor Economics; Indiana University Bloomington - School of Public & Environmental Affairs (SPEA); Global Labor Organization (GLO); Vietnam National University Ha Noi; Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences (VASS) - Centre for Analysis and Forecasting

Date Written: November 11, 2008

Abstract

Private tutoring is a widespread phenomenon in many developing countries, including Vietnam. Using data mainly from the Vietnam Living Standards Surveys 1997-1998 and 1992-1993, from Vietnam’s Ministry of Education and Training, and from local journals and newspapers for analysis, this book reviews the private tutoring situation in Vietnam. This book finds evidence that private tutoring in Vietnam is a necessity in the household budget for lower secondary students, and the trend to attend private tutoring is stronger at higher education levels. There is no evidence of gender discrimination in expenditure on private tutoring. Ethnic minority students and students living in rural areas spend less on private tutoring at the primary level but not at the lower secondary level. However, spending on private tutoring would fall significantly if the qualifications of primary school teachers are increased. Private tutoring is found to have significant impact on a student’s academic performance, but the influence is larger for lower secondary students. This book contributes to the available estimation techniques by extending the simultaneous Tobit model of Amemiya (1974) to a joint Tobit-ordered probit econometric model to address the possible endogeneity of household spending on private tutoring.

Keywords: Private Tutoring, Vietnam, Vietnam Living Standards Surveys, Joint Tobit-Ordered Probit Model

JEL Classification: I2, O1, C3

Suggested Citation

Dang, Hai-Anh H., Private Tutoring in Vietnam: An Investigation of Its Causes and Impacts with Policy Implications (November 11, 2008). PRIVATE TUTORING IN VIETNAM: AN INVESTIGATION OF ITS CAUSES AND IMPACTS WITH POLICY IMPLICATIONS, VDM Verlag, Dr. Mueller Publishing House, 2008, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1707779

Hai-Anh H. Dang (Contact Author)

World Bank - Development Data Group (DECDG) ( email )

1818 H. Street, N.W.
MC2-846
Washington, DC 20433
United States

HOME PAGE: http://sites.google.com/site/haianhhdang/

IZA Institute of Labor Economics ( email )

P.O. Box 7240
Bonn, D-53072
Germany

Indiana University Bloomington - School of Public & Environmental Affairs (SPEA) ( email )

1315 East Tenth Street
Bloomington, IN 47405
United States

Global Labor Organization (GLO) ( email )

Collogne
Germany

Vietnam National University Ha Noi ( email )

Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences (VASS) - Centre for Analysis and Forecasting ( email )

1 Lieu Giai Street
Hanoi
Vietnam

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