The Production of PhDs in the United States and Canada

47 Pages Posted: 19 Dec 2010

See all articles by Barry R. Chiswick

Barry R. Chiswick

University of Illinois at Chicago; IZA Institute of Labor Economics

Nick Larsen

Eastern Washington University

Paul J. Pieper

University of Illinois at Chicago - Department of Economics

Abstract

This paper is concerned with the production of PhDs in the United States and Canada in the post-WW II period, overall and by gender and major discipline. The effects of the explanatory variables lagged six years are consistent with the model. Military conscription with educational exemptions and the Vietnam War increased male PhD production in the U.S., but have no effect for U.S. females or in Canada. Government expenditures on research and development enhanced PhD production, especially for males and in the physical sciences in the U.S. A higher rate of growth of non-farm productivity encouraged PhD production in the U.S., but not in Canada. The cyclical indicator, the adult male unemployment rate, has a weak positive effect for males in both the U.S. and Canada, suggesting that the negative effect of the opportunity cost of time was stronger than the positive wealth effect. Other variables the same, there has been an increase over time in PhD production for females, but there is no such trend for males. The result has been an increase over time in PhD production for both males and females, but the faster increase for females has narrowed the gender gap.

Keywords: PhD, educational attainment, conscription, Korean War, Vietnam War, research funding

JEL Classification: I21, J24

Suggested Citation

Chiswick, Barry R. and Larsen, Nick and Pieper, Paul J., The Production of PhDs in the United States and Canada. IZA Discussion Paper No. 5367. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1728324

Barry R. Chiswick (Contact Author)

University of Illinois at Chicago ( email )

601 S. Morgan Street, Room 2103UH
Chicago, IL 60607-7121
United States
312-996-2683 (Phone)
312-996-3344 (Fax)

IZA Institute of Labor Economics

P.O. Box 7240
Bonn, D-53072
Germany

Nick Larsen

Eastern Washington University

Paul J. Pieper

University of Illinois at Chicago - Department of Economics

725 University Hall (UH)
Chicago, IL 60607-7121
United States

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