Battery Sizing for Serial Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles: A Model-Based Economic Analysis for Germany

FCN Working Paper No. 14/2010

38 Pages Posted: 21 Dec 2010 Last revised: 21 Jul 2011

See all articles by Christian-Simon Ernst

Christian-Simon Ernst

RWTH Aachen University - Institut für Kraftfahrzeuge (ika)

André Hackbarth

RWTH Aachen University - Institute for Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN)

Reinhard Madlener

RWTH Aachen University

Benedikt Lunz

RWTH Aachen University - Institute for Power Generation and Storage Systems (PGS)

Dirk Uwe Sauer

RWTH Aachen University - Institute for Power Generation and Storage Systems (PGS)

Lutz Eckstein

RWTH Aachen University - Institut für Kraftfahrzeuge (ika)

Date Written: June 1, 2011

Abstract

The battery size of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is decisive for the pure electrical range of the vehicle and crucial for the cost-effectiveness of this particular vehicle concept. Based on the energy consumption of a conventional reference car and a PHEV, we introduce a comprehensive total cost of ownership model for the average car user in Germany for both vehicle types. The model takes into account the purchase price, fixed annual costs and variable operating costs. The amortization time of a PHEV also depends on the recharging strategy (once a day, once a night, after each trip), the battery size as well as the battery costs. We find that PHEVs with a 4 kWh battery and at current lithium-ion battery prices reach the break-even point after about six years (five years when using the lower night-time electricity tariffs). With higher battery capacities the amortization time becomes significantly longer. Even with the small battery size and assuming the EU-15 electricity mix, a PHEV is found to emit only around 60% of the CO2 emissions of a comparable conventional car. Thus, with the PHEV concept a cost-effective introduction of electric mobility and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions per vehicle can be reached.

Keywords: PHEV, e-Mobility, Total Cost of Ownership

Suggested Citation

Ernst, Christian-Simon and Hackbarth, André and Madlener, Reinhard and Lunz, Benedikt and Sauer, Dirk Uwe and Eckstein, Lutz, Battery Sizing for Serial Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles: A Model-Based Economic Analysis for Germany (June 1, 2011). FCN Working Paper No. 14/2010 . Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1729134 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1729134

Christian-Simon Ernst (Contact Author)

RWTH Aachen University - Institut für Kraftfahrzeuge (ika) ( email )

Steinbachstrasse 7
Aachen, 52074
Germany

André Hackbarth

RWTH Aachen University - Institute for Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN) ( email )

Mathieustrasse 6
Aachen, 52074
Germany

Reinhard Madlener

RWTH Aachen University ( email )

School of Business and Economics / E.ON ERC
Mathieustraße 10
Aachen, 52074
Germany
+49 241 80 49 820 (Phone)
+49 241 80 49 829 (Fax)

HOME PAGE: http://www.eonerc.rwth-aachen.de/fcn

Benedikt Lunz

RWTH Aachen University - Institute for Power Generation and Storage Systems (PGS) ( email )

Mathieustrasse 6
Aachen, 52074
Germany

Dirk Uwe Sauer

RWTH Aachen University - Institute for Power Generation and Storage Systems (PGS) ( email )

Mathieustrasse 6
Aachen, 52074
Germany

Lutz Eckstein

RWTH Aachen University - Institut für Kraftfahrzeuge (ika) ( email )

Steinbachstrasse 7
Aachen, 52074
Germany

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