Health Care System in Tribal Areas – An Insight (With Reference to Andhra Pradesh State, India)
January 24, 2011
Indian Tribals are traditional, conservative and under-privileged people. They are socially and economically weaker and also under abject poverty and live in a subsistence economy and general backwardness. This is because of their ill-health which is a cause and consequence of poverty. The major impediments to good health are inequity in health system and radical poverty of the masses. Illness lowers learning ability, reduces productivity, income and savings and it leads to poor quality of life and thus perpetuating poverty. India has the largest tribal population in the world. There are about 427 recognized scheduled Tribal groups in India. As per 2001 Census' the tribal population of India is 84.3 million, larger than that of any other country in the world. Myanmar, with the tribal population of 44 million is the second largest. Tribes of Andhra Pradesh have added grandeur to the region with their rich heritage of culture, innocent lifestyle and age-old ethnicity. In other words, their customs, rituals, fairs, festivals have drawn the attraction of all the anthropologists of the country who have conducted surveys on them with enthusiasm and vigor. Presently there are 32 lakh tribals 50 lakh nomads and other backward people in Andhra Pradesh. The state of Andhra Pradesh has been chosen as Study area in view the congregation of larger number of tribal’s live in below poverty line without any basic medical facilities. There is an urgent need to concentrate on them for their survival. Failing which the race will be wiped out due to perpetual contaminated and dangerous diseases prevailing in the entire tribal areas due to non availability timely Medical assistance and Government sponsored Health Care Projects in spite of the budgetary allocation of scores of Public money for their welfare and well being. The basic training focused on hygiene, malaria prognosis and first aid. Community health workers were selected from among married women in their twenties and thirties, preferably with a modicum of education. Other major achievements included the provision of drugs, equipment and vehicles for 32 primary health centers and of vehicles for mobile medical units; matching grants for the construction of 181 subcentres; the establishment of a referral fund for medical emergencies; and the provision of training kits.
Hypothesis: Healthcare system improves the living standards of Tribals, Healthcare system brings socio-Economic Standards among Tribals, and Helath care system gives sustainability and overall growth of tribal areas.
Justification for the Study: Lack of personal hygiene, poor sanitation, poor mother-child health services, absence of health education, lack of national preventive programmes, and lack of health services are responsible for the poor health of the tribals. The malnutrition is high among the tribal population. Nutritional deficiency leads to diseases like endemic goiter, anemia, pellagra and beriberi. Problems like in-sanitary food supplies, water contamination, and poor food in-take reflect on the health status of tribals. The tropical disease like malaria is still widespread in the tribal areas. Hence, better nutrition and good environmental health are the important aspects of village health services.
Objectives of the Study: To Study the Socio and Economic standards of Tribal in Andhra Pradesh State, to Understand the Need for Implementation of Health care projects in Tribal areas of Andhra Pradesh state initiated by the state government, to review the various Government Sponsored Health care schemes in operation to Protect the lives of Tribal’s, to measure the various significant factors influence the Tribal’s Health care systems and to analyze the results and to make suggestion for further improvement.
Conclusion: A total health programme for the tribal villages is a pre-requisite to check and eradicate vector-borne and water-borne diseases. Facilities may be created in the tribal areas so as to attract hundred percent deliveries in the hospitals. All preventive vaccinations and injections may be given free of cost to the tribal people including Hepatitis B and anti-measles vaccines. It is, therefore, essential to update and provide 24-hours hospital facility to the people in the tribal area. It is necessary to conduct frequent surveys on the food habits, nutrition, health practices of the tribals. It will help the authorities to take suitable measures to improve the health of the tribals.
Date posted: January 25, 2011