Determinants and Dynamics of Schooling and Child Labor in Bolivia

28 Pages Posted: 20 Apr 2016

See all articles by Francesco Grigoli

Francesco Grigoli

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

Giacomo Sbrana

Neoma Business School

Date Written: January 1, 2011


This paper investigates the determinants of primary school enrollment, attendance and child labor in Bolivia from 1999 to 2007. The analysis also aims at identifying the substitution and complementary relationships between schooling and working. Although enrollment rates show a significant improvement, lack of attendance remains an issue. The empirical results reveal that the increase in enrollment is led by indigenous children and those living in urban areas. Moreover, contrary to common belief, being extremely poor and indigenous are the main determinants of school attendance. Although extremely poor children increased their school attendance, they were not able to reduce child labor. However, for indigenous children school attendance and child labor were substitutes, increasing schooling and reducing child labor.

Keywords: Street Children, Primary Education, Education For All, Youth and Governance, Children and Youth

Suggested Citation

Grigoli, Francesco and Sbrana, Giacomo, Determinants and Dynamics of Schooling and Child Labor in Bolivia (January 1, 2011). World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 5534. Available at SSRN:

Francesco Grigoli (Contact Author)

International Monetary Fund (IMF) ( email )

700 19th Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20431
United States

Giacomo Sbrana

Neoma Business School ( email )

1 Rue du Maréchal Juin
Mont Saint Aignan Cedex, 76825

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