Contrasting Innovation Creation and Commercialization within Open, User and Cumulative Innovation

36 Pages Posted: 30 Jan 2011

See all articles by Marcel Bogers

Marcel Bogers

Eindhoven University of Technology; University of Copenhagen; University of California, Berkeley

Joel West

Hildegard College; San Jose State University - Organization and Management; KGI - Keck Graduate Institute

Date Written: July 13, 2010


While industrial innovation was once assumed to be a vertically integrated process, three recent streams of research — open innovation, user innovation and cumulative innovation — have examined how innovation is created outside the boundaries of the firm. However, within these streams are multiple paths by which innovations are created and commercialized. We identify nine distinct innovation modes, which we systematically classify according to the locus of innovation creation and commercialization, and according to their enabling conditions. Finally, we discuss the contribution of our taxonomy and suggest future opportunities for research on the micro-foundations of each of these streams.

Suggested Citation

Bogers, Marcel and West, Joel, Contrasting Innovation Creation and Commercialization within Open, User and Cumulative Innovation (July 13, 2010). Available at SSRN: or

Marcel Bogers (Contact Author)

Eindhoven University of Technology

Den Dolech 2
Eindhoven, North Brabant 5612 AZ


University of Copenhagen ( email )

Department of Food and Resource Economics (IFRO)
Rolighedsvej 23
Copenhagen, 1958

University of California, Berkeley

Garwood Center for Corporate Innovation
F402 Hass School of Business, #1930
Berkeley, CA 94720
United States

Joel West

Hildegard College ( email )

150 Paularino Ave. Bldg. B,
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
United States

San Jose State University - Organization and Management ( email )

One Washington Square
San Jose, CA 95192-0066
United States

KGI - Keck Graduate Institute ( email )

535 Watson Drive
Claremont, CA 91711
United States
909-293-8550 (Phone)


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