Cleaning Up the Air: The EPA and Shuttle Diplomacy

Posted: 22 Feb 2011


In practice, building collaborative relationships between environmental groups and industry is not an easy task especially during environmental rulemaking. However, this paper uses original interview data to document a different perspective from stakeholders across two case studies within the Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ): the renewable fuels standard and the locomotive and marine engine rule. In these particular cases, this paper argues that OTAQ uses a new approach - shuttle diplomacy - to negotiate stakeholder differences prior to publication of a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. The findings from this paper help to suggest that the intent of this rule development approach is to provide an atmosphere where stakeholders begin to trust in the process, because they are helping to create it.

Suggested Citation

Rinfret, Sara, Cleaning Up the Air: The EPA and Shuttle Diplomacy. Western Political Science Association 2011 Annual Meeting Paper , Available at SSRN:

Sara Rinfret (Contact Author)

University of Montana ( email )

52 Campus Drive
Missoula, MT 59821
United States

Do you have a job opening that you would like to promote on SSRN?

Paper statistics

Abstract Views
PlumX Metrics