Gender Differences, HIV Risk Perception and Condom Use

Tinbergen Institute Discussion Paper 11-051/2

28 Pages Posted: 14 Mar 2011

See all articles by Judith Lammers

Judith Lammers

University of Amsterdam; Tilburg University - Center for Economic Research (CentER)

Sweder van Wijnbergen

Universiteit van Amsterdam; Tinbergen Institute; Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR); National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

Daan Willebrands

Atradius Credit Insurance

Date Written: March 11, 2011

Abstract

We analyze how HIV-knowledge influences condom use across the sexes. The empirical work is based on a household survey conducted among 1,979 households of a representative group of market persons in Lagos in 2008. Last-time-condom-use is analyzed based on a Probit model while correcting for clustering effects. Next to socioeconomic characteristics, the data includes questions on knowledge of the existence of HIV, HIV prevention, HIV stigma, intended pregnancy, and risk perceptions of engaging in unprotected sex. We observe a large HIV knowledge gap between males and females. Moreover, across the sexes different type of knowledge are important in condom use. Low risk perceptions of engaging in unprotected sex and not knowing that condoms prevent HIV infection appear to be the best predictors for risky sexual behavior among men. The latter is also important in condom use among single females. Both factors, however, do not explain sexual behavior of married women, suggesting a lack of bargaining power in HIV prevention decisions among married females. Our results call for programmatic approaches to differentiate the focus of HIV prevention campaigns for males and females including a separate focus for married men and women. Moreover, the large predictive power of high-risk perceptions of engaging in unprotected sex (while correcting for other HIV knowledge indicators) calls for further exploration of influencing these risk perceptions in HIV prevention programs.

Keywords: prevention, knowledge, HIV/AIDS, risk perception, gender, condom use

JEL Classification: I1, I2

Suggested Citation

Lammers, Judith and van Wijnbergen, Sweder and Willebrands, Daan, Gender Differences, HIV Risk Perception and Condom Use (March 11, 2011). Tinbergen Institute Discussion Paper 11-051/2. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1783525 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1783525

Judith Lammers (Contact Author)

University of Amsterdam ( email )

Spui 21
Amsterdam, 1018 WB
Netherlands

Tilburg University - Center for Economic Research (CentER) ( email )

P.O. Box 90153
Tilburg, 5000 LE
Netherlands

Sweder Van Wijnbergen

Universiteit van Amsterdam ( email )

Roetersstraat 11
Amsterdam, 1018 WB
Netherlands
+31 20 525 4011 / 4203 (Phone)
+31-35-624 91 82 (Fax)

Tinbergen Institute

Burg. Oudlaan 50
Rotterdam, 3062 PA
Netherlands

Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR)

London
United Kingdom

National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) ( email )

1050 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States

Daan Willebrands

Atradius Credit Insurance ( email )

Postbus 8982
Amsterdam
Netherlands

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