All Policies are Glocal: International Enviromental Policymaking with Strategic Subnational Governments
British Journal of Political Science (Forthcoming)
34 Pages Posted: 4 Apr 2011 Last revised: 30 Sep 2013
Date Written: May 28, 2013
National governments have intensified their attempts to create international institutions in various policy fields such as environment, finance, and trade. At the same time, many subnational policymakers have begun to duplicate international efforts by setting their own, stricter policies while others remain inactive or enact more lax regulation. This "glocalization" of policy creates a complex and economically costly patchwork system of regulations. To shed light on this phenomenon we analyze the interaction between subnational and national governments within a general model of international treaty negotiations. The glocalization of regulatory policy can be understood as an attempt by subnational policymakers to strategically constrain or empower national governments in international negotiations. We find that the shadow of international treaty formation gives rise to within-country and cross-country policy balancing dynamics that may explain some of the subnational policy polarization currently observable in many countries. We specify the conditions under which they occur, spell out empirically testable hypotheses, and identify possible theoretical extensions.
Keywords: International agreements, international negotiations, environmental policy, climate policy, subnational policymaking,
JEL Classification: D78, K32, P16
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation