Negativity Bias and Task Motivation: Testing the Effectiveness of Positively versus Negatively Framed Incentives
Goldsmith, Kelly and Ravi Dhar (2013). “Negativity Bias and Task Motivation: Testing the Effectiveness of Positively versus Negatively Framed Incentives,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied.
10 Pages Posted: 23 Apr 2011 Last revised: 17 Jun 2023
Date Written: September 23, 2013
People are frequently challenged by goals that demand effort and persistence. As a consequence, philosophers, psychologists, economist and others have studied the factors that enhance task motivation. Using a sample of undergraduate students and a sample of working adults, we demonstrate that the manner in which an incentive is framed has implications for individuals’ task motivation. In both samples we find that individuals are less motivated when an incentive is framed as a means to accrue a gain (positive framing) as compared to when the same incentive is framed as a means to avoid a loss (negative framing). Further, we provide evidence for the role of the negativity bias in this effect, and highlight specific populations for whom positive framing may be least motivating. Interestingly, we find that people’s intuitions about when they will be more motivated show the opposite pattern, with people predicting that positively framed incentives will be more motivating than negatively framed incentives. We identify a lay belief in the positive correlation between enjoyment and task motivation as one possible factor contributing to the disparity between predicted and actual motivation due to the framing of the incentive. We conclude with a discussion of the managerial implications for these findings.
Keywords: negativity bias, motivation, mis-prediction, incentives
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