American Longevity: Past, Present, and Future

18 Pages Posted: 28 Apr 2011

See all articles by Samuel H. Preston

Samuel H. Preston

University of Pennsylvania - Population Studies Center

Date Written: October 1, 1996


How long we live, and how long members of our families and social groups live, is extraordinarily important to us. It's not a subject of daily discussion, but it would be if we were threatened with a return to earlier conditions. Unfortunately, the subject of longevity falls between the cracks of academe and has received far less attention than it warrants. We are all aware, at least dimly, that people are living longer than they used to. The numbers are impressive: at the turn of the century, life expectancy at birth in the United States was 48 years; it's now 76 years. Since life expectancy during the Stone Age was in the range of 20 to 30 years, it is clear that a majority of the cumulative advances have taken place in the short span of the 20th century. Without the improvements during this century, half of us would not e here: a quarter of the present U.S. population would have been born and died, and another quarter would never have been born because of the pre-reproductive death of a mother, grandmother, or great grandmother. In developing countries, nearly all of the improvements in longevity have occurred in this century. How these gains were achieved has important implications for public policy; how large future gains will be is the single most important area of uncertainty affecting the fiscal viability of our "old age welfare state." These are the two related issues that I focus on in this policy brief.

JEL Classification: H55, I12, J11

Suggested Citation

Preston, Samuel H., American Longevity: Past, Present, and Future (October 1, 1996). Available at SSRN: or

Samuel H. Preston (Contact Author)

University of Pennsylvania - Population Studies Center ( email )

3718 Locust Walk
Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298
United States

Do you have a job opening that you would like to promote on SSRN?

Paper statistics

Abstract Views
PlumX Metrics