Reconsidering Gender Bias in Intra-Household Allocation in India

40 Pages Posted: 9 May 2011

See all articles by Laura Zimmermann

Laura Zimmermann

IZA Institute of Labor Economics; University of Oxford


Detecting gender discrimination among children in the intra-household allocation of goods from household surveys has often proven to be difficult. This paper uses some of the commonly used techniques in this field to analyze education expenditures in India. Contrary to most previous research, I find evidence of discrimination against girls. Results at the all-India level are robust to the statistical method and the education expenditure measure, while they are more sensitive to changes in the analysis at the state level. In general, girls experience gender discrimination especially from age 10 onwards, with almost universal disadvantage in the amount of education expenditures in the group of 15-19 year olds.

Keywords: gender discrimination, India, intra-household allocation, education expenditures

JEL Classification: I24, I25, J16, O15

Suggested Citation

Zimmermann, Laura, Reconsidering Gender Bias in Intra-Household Allocation in India. IZA Discussion Paper No. 5687, Available at SSRN:

Laura Zimmermann (Contact Author)

IZA Institute of Labor Economics ( email )

P.O. Box 7240
Bonn, D-53072

University of Oxford

United Kingdom

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