Participation in the Community Rating System of NFIP: An Empirical Analysis of North Carolina Counties

39 Pages Posted: 25 May 2011 Last revised: 11 Oct 2011

See all articles by Craig E. Landry

Craig E. Landry

UGA Ag & Applied Economics

Jingyuan Li

University of Delaware

Date Written: October 11, 2011


In order to motivate flood insurance purchase and promote flood hazard awareness and mitigation, the Community Rating System (CRS) of National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), credits floodplain management activities and awards flood insurance premium discounts. CRS, however, has been marked by a lack of active participation since its inception. The objective of this study is to provide empirical evidence related to community decisions involving incentive-based flood risk mitigation projects. We test a number of hypotheses offered by previous researchers regarding factors that motivate local hazard management initiatives through an examination of patterns in CRS participation across all 100 North Carolina counties from 1991 to 2002. Specifically, we examine the influence of flood experience, hydrological risk, local capacity, and socioeconomic factors on county hazard mitigation decisions. Results indicate that flood history and physical risk factors increase likelihood of local hazard mitigation adoption. We find evidence that the probability of CRS participation is lower in counties with a greater proportion of senior citizens and greater level of education, and that flood hazard mitigation activities at the county level are more likely when a greater number of nested of municipalities participate in CRS.

Keywords: flood, hazard, community, mitigation, insurance, panel data, probit regression

JEL Classification: D70, D80, H41

Suggested Citation

Landry, Craig and Li, Jingyuan, Participation in the Community Rating System of NFIP: An Empirical Analysis of North Carolina Counties (October 11, 2011). Available at SSRN: or

Craig Landry (Contact Author)

UGA Ag & Applied Economics ( email )

Athens, GA 30602-7509
United States

Jingyuan Li

University of Delaware ( email )

Newark, DE 19711
United States

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